Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi, and is the only city in Warren County. It is located 234 miles northwest of New Orleans on the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers, and 40 miles west of Jackson, the state capital. The siege of Vicksburg, which lasted from May 18 – July 4, 1863 was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Major General Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee (Union) crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Lieutenant General. John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. On May 19th and May 22nd, two major assaults caused many casualties for the Confederate army. After that, Grant decided to attack the city on May 25th. After 40 days and having limited supplies, the Confederates surrendered on July 4th. This gave command of the Mississippi River to the Union who held it for the rest of the war. This battle was considered by many as the turning point of the war. This battle resulted in over 4,800 casualties for the Union, and over 3,200 casualties along with nearly 30,000 captured for the Confederacy.